GamesRead : One father is working to make a better sunblock made of nanoparticles

Most commercial sunscreens are toxic. It’s a trade off: you get UV protection, but in return the chemicals leech into your body, producing DNA-damaging molecules. Scientist and father, Mark Saltzman, wants to bring consumers a better option. Along with a team of researchers, he’s been working on a new kind of sunblock that lasts longer and isn’t so toxic to our bodies. He believes he can achieve this through the power of nanoparticles.

“The initial goal…was to make a sunblock that lasted longer,” said Saltzman, a Biomedical Engineer at Yale University, in an interview with ScienceMag. “But as I read more about sunscreen, I became aware of people’s concerns about safety.” Saltzman and his colleagues came across a kind of bioadhesive nanoparticle that could stick to skin, but not be absorbed by the epidermis.

In lab tests on shaved mice, the researchers had some promising results. The nanoparticles did not break the skin, writing that they found “significantly reduced double-stranded DNA breaks when compared with a commercial sunscreen formulation.” Even better, the nanoparticles showed considerable resistance to water and could stay on the skin for up to 5 days. If the wearer desires to remove them beforehand, a simple towel-dry is all it takes.

The team engineered the nanoparticles to have a bubble filled with a chemical UV filter. The researchers only used about 5 percent of the UV-protecting chemicals in their solution, making it much more efficient when compared against commercial sunblock. When exposing the mice to UV rays, the researchers found the spray-on nanoparticle sunblock worked just as well as preventing sunburn as the commercial stuff (just without the harmful trade-off).

Saltzman says they’re working on applying for the proper permissions to begin testing on humans, and he intends on being the first participant in the trials if it’s allowed.

Image credit: Alex Liivet/Flickr

GamesRead : Google unveils two Nexus phones, a Pixel tablet, and new Chromecast

Many of the details of Google’s big event today were leaked ahead of time, but it was still a huge day for Mountain View. We got new Nexus phones, an updated Chromecast, and a new Pixel-branded Android tablet. Let’s go over all the high points.

nexus phones

Nexus phones

There are two Nexus phones this year, which is a departure for Google. Every other year there’s been a single flagship phone. This time there’s the high-end Nexus 6P made by Huawei and a slightly more modest LG-built Nexus 5X. The 6P has a 5.7-inch AMOLED display at 2560×1400 resolution. Inside is an octa-core Snapdragon 810, 3GB of RAM, a 3450mAh battery.

The Snapdragon 810 has been a toasty ship in other phones, leading to performance throttling. It’s not clear what Google and Huawei have done to counter this, but hopefully they did something. There’s still no microSD card slot in the Nexus 6P, but it does come in 32, 64, and 128GB versions. The Nexus 6P has an all aluminum design, except for a strange plastic window at the top near the camera that houses the antennas.

Speaking of the camera, Google promises this time its Nexus phone will have a good camera. Both the Nexus 6P and the 5X have a 12.3MP rear shooter with laser autofocus and 1.55µm pixels that should allow for better low-light photos. There are also fingerprint sensors on the back of both Nexus phones.

The Nexus 5X is smaller at just 5.2 inches, and the screen is a 1080p LCD. Inside you get a hexa-core Snapdragon 808, 2GB of RAM, a 2700mAh battery. The 808 is a slower chip in absolute terms compared to the 810, but it doesn’t get as hot or throttle down when being used heavily. The GPU is a bit weaker, though.

Both phones are unlocked and will work on all the big US carriers, as well as Google’s Project Fi hybrid cell service. The Nexus 5X is priced at $379.99 (16GB) and $429.99 (32GB). The Nexus 6P will be $499.99 for the 32GB, $549 for 64GB, and $649 for the 128GB. Preorders are happening today in several countries, but they won’t ship for at least a few weeks. Google noted that Android 6.0 Marshmallow will start rolling out to existing Nexus devices next week.

pixel c

The Pixel C

Google isn’t making a Nexus tablet this year, but it is making a different kind of Android tablet. Unlike Nexus devices, this isn’t a piece of hardware designed by an OEM for Google. The Pixel C is like the Chromebook Pixel in that Google designed the whole thing, except it runs Android 6.0 instead of Chrome OS. So “Pixel” is basically Google’s high-end productivity brand now.

The Pixel C will have 10.2-inch LCD with a monster resolution of 2560 x 1700. It’s close to the Chromebook Pixel, but has an even higher pixel density because it’s a little smaller. Inside is a Tegra X1 ARM processor with a Maxwell GPU. This is the same chip that’s used in the super-powerful Shield Android TV box. Rounding it out are 3GB of RAM and either 32GB or 64GB of storage.

The Pixel C has an aluminum frame that’s very reminiscent of the Chromebook Pixel, and it has the light bar on the back, which you can tap to see the charge level. The tablet itself looks cool, but it’s the keyboard dock that sets it apart. The tablet attaches magnetically and can wirelessly charge the keyboard. The hinge doesn’t require a kickstand and can adjust between 100 and 135 degrees. It connects over Bluetooth, so there are no unsightly connectors.

The Pixel C isn’t available for pre-order yet, but Google says it will be out in time for the holidays. The base model starts at $499 with a $599 upgrade to 64GB of storage. The keyboard costs $150 extra.


Chromecast and the rest

The Chromecast two years ago was Google’s first big hit in the living room, thanks mostly to the incredible $35 price point. The new Chromecast is still $35, but it fixes many of the original’s shortcomings. The new Chromecast has dual-band 2.4 and 5GHz WiFi. There are three antennas inside that will help it stay on the best band at all times, similar to the OnHub router.

The updated Chromecast is also faster, with support for preloading of streaming content. Google calls this Fast Play, but it requires app developers to add support. Basically, apps can connect to the Chromecast and begin buffering content in the background so when you press play, it’s completely instant. The Chromecast comes in three colors now — black, yellow, and red. The HDMI is also on a short reinforced cable so it should connect to more cramped ports. They look like little hockey pucks.

Google is also making a new kind of Chromecast specifically for audio. The aptly named Chromecast Audio works like a standard Chromecast, except it has an AUX port that you use to connect it to your old-school speakers. It makes these speakers into a cast device, which appears in Google Cast apps like Play Music and Spotify (which is new). This device is $35 as well.

Also in the realm of streaming audio, Google announced a family plan for Play Music All Access. Later this year, you’ll be able to pay $14.99 for up to six family members to stream music. This is much better than the individual $10 plans we have now, and identical to Apple Music’s family plan.

That’s it for Google’s big event. It’ll be a few weeks before most of the shiny new gadgets start shipping, but the end of 2015 is going to be busy for Google.

GamesRead : Valve confirms Half-Life 3 will not be a virtual reality game

Half-Life 3, does it even exist as an active project at Valve? Nobody knows, and Valve hardly ever talks about it. However, at EGX 2015 in the UK last week, Valve was in attendance and they did comment on Half-Life 3 if only to dismiss a potential feature.

Chet Faliszek, video game writer and employee of Valve, was on hand at EGX to talk about virtual reality and answer audience questions. One of those questions was inevitably about Half-Life 3. More specifically, whether Half-Life 3 will end up being a virtual reality game. Faliszek’s answer was simply, “No.”

He was then asked the same question again a little later on, which he took jokingly, but again responded with, “I said no.”

hl2ue4 3

I’m sure a few people are reading more into those short responses than they actually should. You could interpret it as a Valve employee confirming the existence of Half-Life 3 as a game, but he didn’t. He simply confirmed that if the game was made, or even if it is being made, it won’t be a virtual reality game. However, there’s nothing to confirm it exists at all.

While Half-Life as a VR game doesn’t make sense, simply because the VR tech isn’t at a point where it could support it properly as an experience. The use of VR to explore some of Half-Life’s environments minus the gameplay would be a great experience. Imagine walking around Half-Life 2’s locations with a headset on, especially if they’d had a graphical update like the one shown in Unreal Engine 4 last year.

And for all those reading this thinking he did confirm Half-Life 3, well, stop trying to make Half-Life 3 happen. It’s not going to happen. Or at least, it won’t until everyone stops trying to make it happen.

GamesRead : Sony says there’s no market for a PlayStation Vita 2

It has been clear for a few years now that smartphones are replacing dedicated handhelds for mobile gaming. Both the Nintendo 3DS and PlayStation Vita haven’t sold as well as they were expected to because of this. Clearly convenience is a major driving force.

With that in mind, you won’t be surprised to hear that Sony has no plans to develop and launch a PlayStation Vita 2. Sony Computer Entertainment Worldwide Studio president Shuhei Yoshida confirmed this during a Q&A session at EGX 2015 held in the UK last week.


Yoshida explained that the ease of gaming on a smartphone, and also the abundance of free games on those platforms, has made for an unhealthy climate when it comes to dedicated handheld gaming hardware. In other words, there is no PS Vita 2 unless there is a massive shift in the market away from smartphones. I can’t see that happening, can you?

While this is certainly bad news for anyone who prefers dedicated gaming handhelds with buttons and sticks for much improved control, it doesn’t mean we can’t continue to game that way. The PS Vita remains a very capable device with 720p visuals, a healthy range of existing games, and no end to production of the hardware or new games in sight.


For now, the Vita isn’t selling very well outside of Japan, but Sony could try and turn that around with further hardware price cuts and more support for new games aimed at Western audiences. The question is, will it? There’s also the Vita-compatible PlayStation TV, which has always been a strange device even if there are several good reasons to own one.

I can’t see Nintendo throwing in the towel on handhelds just yet. Sony’s rival has embraced mobile gaming, but is treating it as a separate market to handheld gaming. I am confident the 3DS will have a successor, but it may come in the form of the console bundle that is the Nintendo NX. You’ll still have a dedicated handheld for gaming, but it will also double as the controller for your NX console.

As a Vita owner myself, I hope new games continue to appear for it. Recently we’ve had a welcome influx of RPGs and visual novels from Japan. As long as that flow of games is allowed to head west (even if we do have to suffer digital-only releases) there should be a market for the Vita outside of its home territory.

GamesRead : BlackBerry CEO attempts to show off Priv Android phone, fails awkwardly

In case you hadn’t heard, BlackBerry has been working on their first smartphone that doesn’t run their own operating system. What OS does it run, you ask? Google, according to CEO John Chen.

The new phone, called the Priv, is a portrait QWERTY slider, and what Chen meant to say was that it runs Android. Remembering correct names wasn’t the only thing that Chen had trouble with during the brief (and very awkward) red carpet demonstration he gave one lucky reporter.


Chen also struggled to get the phone to actually do anything. From the home screen, he tries to fire up Google Chrome, but the Priv he’s holding lags so badly that he continued to tap three more times before the browser started up. When Chrome did finally appear on the screen, it was asking him to step through the first run process.

He tries to recover by stating that it’s a demo unit, and then fumbles for another app to run. Spoiler alert: he never finds one, not that he tries for very long.

Instead, Chen quickly jumps to talking about specs. He struggles there, too, only managing to inform that the Priv is a 5.5-inch phone that runs “literally, you know, the latest Qualcomm specs” including “cameras and other good stuff.”

About halfway through, Chen slides out the QWERTY keyboard — which says he always likes to save for last because it impresses people so much. That’s where the demo finally gets back on track, right? Nope. Chen waves his finger over it briefly while mumbling about its capacitive keys and how they let you use the keypad like a trackpad and mouse around things.

Still, the video did clear up a a few things. Firstly: that the name of the phone is pronounced “prihv,” not “prive.” Second: that’s supposed to mean that it gives its users privacy and a sense of privilege. Third (and perhaps most importantly): it showed that John Chen should never, ever be the first person BlackBerry gets to demonstrate a new device that could make or break the company.

This is, after all, the guy who wrote an open letter asking President Obama to force Apple and Netflix to make BlackBerry apps. PR is clearly not his strength.

GamesRead : Simple hack allows all PS Vita games to run on PlayStation TV

The PlayStation TV is basically a PS Vita without a display you instead hook up to a TV and control using a DualShock pad. You’d expect such a device to play all PS Vita games by default, but it doesn’t. Instead, Sony launched the PlayStation TV with 100+ games compatibility and is slowly rolling out support for others. Too slowly.

If there’s a game not on the list you want to play it can be frustrating, especially if there isn’t an obvious reason why it doesn’t work. But it turns out there is a simple way around this problem.

Sony uses a whitelist system for allowing PS Vita games to boot on the PlayStation TV. If a game is not on this whitelist, it simply won’t be allowed to run. However, a simple hack has been discovered to allow you to replace the whitelist stored on the TV with a new version that allows all games and apps to run.


The hack is a two stage process detailed in full over on NeoGAF. Basically, you need to send yourself a couple of emails to enable file overwriting to occur on the device and then to overwrite the whitelist .dat file. Once replaced, no Vita game should get blocked. However, this doesn’t mean you’ll be able to play all games as some have touch input you cannot replicate on the PlayStation TV. Those games will run now, but you won’t be able to play them properly.

There’s every chance Sony will notice this hack floating around and release a patch to stop it from working. If you manage to get it working before that inevitable patch is released, chances are Sony won’t be able to remove it, only stop anyone else enabling it. So, if you want to unlock all the games, go through this overwriting process ASAP.

GamesRead : Netflix shows you how to build your own binge button

You might go through a lot of preparation before settling in for a movie marathon or a catch-up session of Orange is the New Black, but Netflix has come up with a way to simplify things.

A group of Netflix staffers came up with the Netflix Switch. It’s a cool little DIY project that they wanted to work like the Staples Easy Button — a real one, not just one that shouts “that was easy!” when you slap it. The Switch actually automates a whole list of pre-viewing tasks.

Since this is a DIY project, you can tune the actual process to suit your particular needs. In the demo video, the Switch enables do not disturb mode on the owner’s Android phone, places a delivery order at a nearby sushi place for intermission snacking, and brings the house lights down before the show begins.

They opted to build their device using a $39 Particle Core dev board. It’s a very versatile little board that measures just under an inch and a half long and about 3/4″ inch wide. It also has built-in WiFi, a necessity since the Switch needs to be able to beam commands to connected devices and websites. Also on their shopping list: an IR emitter, a lithium-polymer battery that can be recharged via micro USB, a physical switch, and a snazzy-looking enclosure to house it all.

If you happen to have Philips Hue bulbs and the same Netflix-ready TV that the build crew did, you can follow their instructions step-by-step to build your very own Netflix switch and minimize movie night hassle. If not, you’ll have to put in a bit more effort — or none at all and just resort to vegging out in a slightly more 20th-century way.

GamesRead : 11 massive crowdfunding disasters

There’s no denying that crowdfunding has completely changed the way people do business, mostly for the good. Being able to reach out directly to your customers and get them to put cash down up front to grow your business and produce your product has enabled million-dollar ideas to become reality. Unfortunately, some of those ideas don’t pan out.

For every brilliant idea that makes it to market smoothly, there’s one that runs into trouble. Whether it’s the result of new business owners not understanding the work that goes into producing and fulfilling or just unscrupulous scammers looking to take the money and run, many Kickstarters and Indiegogos end up with very unhappy customers. These 11 crowdfunding campaigns that resulted in nothing but heartbreak.


The Doom That Came To Atlantic City

As you’re reminded over and over when you back a project, Kickstarter is not an investment, and there’s a very real possibility that you won’t get what you paid for. Backers of The Doom That Came To Atlantic City learned that the hard way. The eldritch horror board game was funded in 2012, but months and then years went by without project leader Erik Chevalier shipping anything. Things got so bad that one backer filed a lawsuit against him, and the Washington State attorney general ruled that he took the $122,000 raised by the campaign and used it for his own ends. Thankfully, Cryptozoic Games picked up the game and produced it, even sending copies to backers at their own cost.


i+ Case

iPhone accessories are one of the most overcrowded Kickstarter categories, with thousands of cases, stands, chargers, and other peripherals taking home serious amounts of money. One example that people would rather forget about was the i+ Case, a bumper of beautifully tooled aluminum that wrapped around the exterior of the phone to protect it from drops and spills. The project raised $85,731 and shipped mostly on time, so what’s the problem? Turns out that the aluminum shell wreaked havoc on the operation of the iPhone’s antenna, meaning that if you put it on you couldn’t actually make calls. Amazingly, the company refused to offer any refunds on the item.



The concept behind the digital picture cube Instagram was cute — hook it up to WiFi and it displays your Instagram feed — but the creators really had no idea what it would take to bring a project of that magnitude to market. The Instacube got tons of press and closed with over $620,000 in 2012, but when it came time to manufacture the units, things rapidly fell apart. The team had a working prototype, but by the time they got it built Instagram had changed their API, resolution and more, making it obsolete. Over the next two years, Instacube’s team slowly dwindled, with the company’s founder actually making a speech at SXSW to try and explain what a nightmare the whole process was. They finally shipped in 2014 to dismal reviews.



A video game conceptualized by sci-fi legend Neal Stephenson that promised to reinvent digital sword fighting seemed like a slam dunk in 2012, and Clang got funded on Kickstarter to the tune of over half a million dollars. Video games are hard things to make, though, especially if you’re not particularly experienced, and in 2014 Stephenson announced that the project had run out of money and would be shut down. The team had hoped to garner additional outside investment as the product became more robust, but they never got to that point. An early build was uploaded to Steam, but without the motion controllers that were the heart of the experience, it wasn’t terribly playable. To his credit, Stephenson offered unconditional backer refunds, but Clang left a bad taste in many people’s mouths.


Smarty Ring

Probably the worst kind of crowdfunding disasters are the ones that turn out to be straight up scams. Smarty Ring was a cash-in on the wearable electronics trend that swept the world in 2013, promising a high-tech ring that you could use to control your phone through Bluetooth. The India-based company brought in a massive $297,999 and promised to ship in April of 2014. Unfortunately, they didn’t even have a working prototype and when they finally revealed one, it was significantly bigger and bulkier than what they promised. Amazingly enough, they went back to Indiegogo and raised another $100,000, only to delay and delay some more. They still have yet to show a functional model of their ring.


Open Locksport

Backers of the Lockpicks for Open Locksport campaign by Schuyler Towne thought they had something really cool going. Towne, a competitive lockpicker (yes, that is a real thing), originally asked for $6,000 to produce a line of picks. He ended up closing his campaign with over $87,000 in pledges from 1,159 backers and far more orders than he was ready to fill. The next few years were difficult for Towne, as he spent the money earmarked to produce the picks on his day-to-day survival while posting sporadic updates. Some friends stepped in to try and salvage the project and Towne’s reputation, but many backers never got what they paid for.


Midnight Clock

It’s really hard to pinpoint the exact moment when some of these projects transformed from successes to disasters. The Midnight Clock by Devin Montgomery was a charming invention — a quirky clock that features a unique locking mechanism that lets you open up the face and retrieve a book hidden inside. Montgomery made the first model for his son’s birthday and after friends praised it decided to bring it to the world. Unfortunately, since the project closed in July of 2013 only a dozen backers have been delivered their clocks, leaving some 700 in the lurch.


Glory To Rome

You wouldn’t think a card game could be a financial burden. But for Ed Carter, proprietor of the Cambridge Game Company, it would turn out to be his ruin. Carter funded a deluxe edition of his Glory To Rome game in 2011 and raised $73,000. He outsourced production to a Chinese company but the deal quickly fell apart, and Carter soon after lost the day job that allowed him to make games as a hobby. Eventually he got to the point where he was $100,000 in debt to the project without a single game shipped and had to mortgage his house. Carter hopes to get back on his feet and fulfill his responsibilities, but it isn’t looking good.



USB gizmos are another hot Kickstarter category, as people invent all kinds of things you can plug into the side of your computer. One particularly ambitious product was myIDKey from start-up Arkami. The personal security device included a fingerprint reader and, when synched with your PC, would auto-fill password forms and other private information for you. They had a working prototype and brought in half a million on Kickstarter and another $3 million in venture capital. Unfortunately, Arkami kept revising the product to add features, so the scheduled ship date of September of 2013 came and went. Arkami closed its doors in 2014 with no product shipped and tons of pissed-off backers.


AGENT Smartwatch

The third point of the Kickstarter frenzy trifecta would have to be smartwatches. After the Pebble got massively overfunded in 2012, dozens of wannabes took to the platform with their own wearable computers. Many of them got funded, few of them delivered. One of the most notorious was the AGENT Smartwatch, which promised “the world’s smartest watch” with wireless charging, high-def display, and motion sensing capabilities. The campaign asked for $100,000 and pulled in more than a million, but not a single person has recieved a watch over two years later, and creator Chris Walker has spent the time developing and selling other products. Some backers have already filed suit in small claims court to get their money back.


Kobe Red

Kickstarter has an anti-fraud team looking out to keep scams off the service, but somebody was asleep at the wheel in 2013 when Kobe Red slipped through. Purporting to be a high-end jerky created from Japanese Kobe beef, the page was suspicious from the start, with no product shots and no creator names listed. The page did have “taste testimonies,” allegedly collected at that year’s SXSW, that were just iPhone screenshots. Despite all that, backers pledged a staggering $120,309. Smelling a rat, a pair of documentary filmmakers hired a private investigator who discovered that creators Magnus Fun didn’t exist and the project was a scam. Kickstarter cancelled it just hours before it was scheduled to close and permanently take all the money.

So, remember: Kickstarter has been great for some things and mixed for others, but it is not a retail service, and funding doesn’t guarantee you anything other than risk. If you’re tight on cash, seriously consider the success of a project’s deliverables before you pledge.

GamesRead : NASA finds sure signs of water currently flowing on Mars

The red planet has finally given up one of its best kept secrets: there is active water flow on Mars.

Last week NASA announced they would be holding a press conference about a “major science finding” that lead to a slew of speculation – from life on the planet to a tie-in to Matt Damon’s “The Martian.” The reality though, is all the more striking.

The publication National GeoScience announced the findings ahead of the press conference Monday morning. Scientists have found what they call “recurring slop lineae,” which appear as dark streaks that appear to flow downward from craters and other areas of height during certain times of the Martian year. “For four years they have not been able to explain the waxing and waning of these streaks, these observations have narrowed the constraints, but there has been no evidence of water until now,” Michael Meyer, lead scientist for the Mars Exploration Program at NASA Headquarters, spoke at the press conference.


NASA and other planetary scientists have been studying these RSL for years, it took them awhile to actually confirm the presence of liquid on the surface. See, they were getting their data from the CRISM on board the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, which was only sampling data at 3pm every day. By then, the water had evaporated and no physical trace was left to be found. It did, however, leave behind some chemical deposits, which tipped the team off.

Those slopes are salt deposits that, as Lujendra Ojha from Georgia Tech confirmed, are hydrated.  Ojha specializes in spectroscopy, the study between matter and electromagnetic radiation.  By observing the variations on the spectrograph provided by data from the CRISM, Ojha was able to find that the sale deposits of magnesium perchlorate, magnesium chlorate, and sodium perchlorate contained water molecules, thus pointing to evidence of an active water flow on the planet’s surface.

How that water gets there is still up for debate. Mary Beth Wilhelm of the NASA Ames Research Center proposed the strongest theory is that the salt deposits are grabbing the moisture from the humidity in the air. There could still be unknown sources, like underground lakes or even ice hidden deep below, that is slowly melting and seeping out. Wilhelm confirmed their favored theory is one of moisture in the atmosphere, but stressed that more analysis, and active research, was needed to determine the origin of the water.

But does that mean there is life on Mars? The team at the press conference answered the most pointed question by saying with water present, there is always a possibility. The key is getting more time on the red planet and further exploration to determine if there was once life, or is some sort of life now, on Mars. But the team was adamant that what humans know about life being tied to water, the possibility for life on Mars is there.

GamesRead : Ridley Scott’s Prometheus sequel now known as Alien: Paradise Lost

Ridley Scott does not plan on slowing down anytime soon. The 77-year-old director has been releasing one film a year since 2012’s Prometheus — two in 2013 counting both The Councilor and the TV movie The Vatican — continues to discuss future projects along the way.

With The Martian ready to hit theaters this weekend, he’s already talking about his next project, the sequel to Prometheus, which he recently revealed to be titled Alien: Paradise Lost.

The title takes its name from John Milton’s epic poems about Adam and Eve’s expulsion from the garden paradise of Eden, after Satan pulled some nasty tricks on them. Comparisons between the prime humans’ overreaching (eating the forbidden fruit) ties into the Greek myth of Prometheus (stealing fire from the gods) and of course the overarching themes of this franchise, which basically imply that poking our noses all over space only leads to death and destruction.

But, how does all that tie into the continuing space drama being told by Scott? “I’m sure you’ve never been through it, the poem’s a book, Paradise Lost,” he said to the interviewer. “It sounds intellectual but there’s a similarity to it. That’s where it stops.”

In another interview, Scott expanded on that explanation. “We’re heading back to where and how and why the beast was invented. We’ll go back into the backdoor of the very first Alien that I did 30 years ago.”

Scott also recently stated that he wants to keep playing in the pre-Alien sandbox with possibly four films total. He explained that he saw the xenomorphs themselves as a piece of biological warfare and that those sequels will continue to explain how they went from the things seen in Prometheus to the ones seen in Alien.